Mycobacterium leprae is a bacterium which causes a progressive, chronic bacterial infection called leprosy. The nerves in the nose’s lining, the upper respiratory tract and in the extremities get affected by it. Leprosy produces nerve damage, muscle weakness and skin sores. If not treated, it may result in significant disability and severe disfigurement. An infected individual’s mucus can lead to the spread of leprosy. This usually happens when an infected individual coughs or sneezes. The disease is not highly contagious. Close contact repeatedly with someone who hasn’t been treated can cause transmission of leprosy. The bacteria causing leprosy multiply slowly over a long period of time. The disease can incubate for over five years. Symptoms might not show up till 20 years. The World Health Organization has come up with a multiple drug therapy for curing all kinds of leprosy. It is available worldwide for free of cost. Quite a few antibiotics are also available for killing the leprosy causing bacteria. Consultation and accurate diagnosis is the key to the treatment.
MELASMA: Melasma is a common skin problem that is more prevalent in Indian women. The condition causes dark, discolored patches to appear on the skin. Melasma can be due to hormonal changes in the body during pregnancy or from exposure to sun. Hormones stimulate the growth of cells that make brown pigment (melanocytes) and exposure to sunlight stimulates melanin pigments. Melasma causes patches of discoloration on the skin. The brown or grey-brown patches of melasma appear most often on the cheeks, forehead, nose and chin. In some women, melasma often disappears on its own after pregnancy or after an affected woman stops taking the contraceptive pills. Local applications, oral medicines, Laser therapy, chemical peels, dermabrasion etc are effective in removing the darker pigments from the skin and restoring normal skin tone.
NAIL DISORDERS: Nail disorder is a condition that affect the appearance of fingernails and toenails. Abnormalities in the nails can be caused by bacteria, fungus or viruses infections, underlying conditions and inherited ailments. Nail disorder can be arised at any age. About 50% of all nail disorders are of infectious origin, 15% are due to inflammatory or metabolic conditions, and 5% are due to malignancies and pigment disturbances. The various diagnosis of nail disorders is often an area of uncertainty. Nail disorders are very common reason for dermatologic consultation. They are checked through clinical inspection, dermatoscopy, diagnostic imaging, microbiological including mycological testing, and histopathological examination. High-risk groups who suffers from nail disorders include diabetics, dialysis patients, transplant recipients, and cancer patients. Some of the common causes of nail disorder are some types of hair loss, such as alopecia areata , anaemia, skin infections (paronychia, ringworm, athlete’s foot), eczema, lichen planus (an inflammatory immune response), psoriasis. Some of the common symptoms include inflammation under and around nails, changes in nail colour, brittle nails, bumpy or grooved nails, split nails, thin nails, ingrown toenail.
ORAL ULCERS: Mouth ulcers are painful areas in the mouth and gums. They are also known as canker sores. While mostly harmless, mouth ulcers can be extremely uncomfortable and make it difficult for some people to eat, drink, and brush their teeth. Mouth ulcers range in size, and the exact symptoms of the mouth ulcer will depend on what type of ulcer a person has. Causes can be infection, vitamin deficiency, underlying systemic diseases, tobacco/smoking addiction, trauma to oral cavity.
Photodermatitis treatment is required when a person suffers from an abnormal reaction on the skin due to exposure to ultraviolet rays. It can be both, acute or chronic. In such a condition, the sufferer’s immune system reacts to the UV rays and causes a blister, rash or scaly patches on the skin. However, the reaction and exposure level differs from person to person. There are a lot of factors which can make your skin sensitive to UV rays. One can have an inherent problem of photosensitivity. Taking certain medications or getting exposed to certain plants including weed and edible plants like hogweed, cowbane, parsnip, fennel and others can also be a reason. Other factors which can cause photodermatitis are diseases such as eczema or lupus, which make the skin sensitive to light, metabolic and genetic factors and reactions to certain chemicals and drugs. People who are exposed to the UV rays for more than 30 minutes at a time and people with the porphyria condition also have a very high risk of getting photodermatitis.
Psoriasis is one of the most common, persistent and baffling of all dermatological disorders. This illness is characterized by over-multiplication of skin cells up to 10 times faster than normal growth. As dead underlying cells reach the skin’s surface, their voluminous accumulation causes raised, red plaques that gets covered with white scales. This disease typically happens on the elbows, knees and scalp. Psoriasis, can also affect the palms, torso and soles of the feet. Psoriasis, can also at time be found associated with psoriatic arthritis, which leads to swelling and pain in the joints. It is estimated that in India there are 10 to 30 percent of people who have psoriasis also are sufferers of psoriatic arthritis.